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Off-chain refers to activities or transactions that occur outside the primary blockchain network. These actions are not recorded directly on the blockchain ledger but are performed through secondary systems or channels. Off-chain transactions aim to alleviate scalability issues, reduce network congestion, or enable faster and more cost-effective transactions by conducting certain operations away from the main blockchain. Various scaling solutions, such as payment channels or state channels, facilitate off-chain interactions while leveraging the security and finality of the underlying blockchain when necessary.